THE CONQUEST BY THE GODS

Agustus 1, 2011 at 11:08 am (Uncategorized) (, )

The Conquest by the Gods

The Tuatha De Danann was the third group to invade Ireland. This third conquest is one of the most mysterious and probably most important of the all the invasions.

The Tuatha De Danann, Children of Danu, is remembered today as the gods of Ireland. There is also evidence to support that they were also the old gods of the greater Celtic community in prehistoric Europe. They were also direct descendants of Nemed, who had left Ireland and settled in the northern islands of Greece. There they had learnt the arts of druidism in which they had become very skilled.

They had fought on the side of the Athenians against the Philistines and had amazed everyone with their feats of magic, but eventually the Philistines became to great to overcome and the Tuatha De Danann fled.

Among the possessions they took with them there were four sacred objects: the Lia Fail, a stone which uttered a shriek at the inauguration of a rightful king; the invincible sword of Lugh; the deadly sword of Nuada and the ever-plentiful cauldron of the Dagda.

First the landed in Scotland but the land was so bleak that the life of the exiles was harsh, so the Tuatha De decided to claim the land they believed was rightfully theirs, Ireland.

They landed in secret at the festival of Beltain (1 May), the most sacred of all Celtic feasts. Once everyone had landed the boats were burnt so that, no matter what, they couldn’t run.

They conjured a darkness around themselves and moved about the country unnoticed. At Connacht they surprised the Fir Bolg into battle.

There were many fierce battles until the Fir Bolg admitted defeat. The Fir Bolg who survived the battles fled to islands on the coast. The final battle between the Tuatha De and the Fir Bolg is known as the First Battle of Moytura.

The Tuatha De could not claim Ireland yet, for the Fomorians still lived on Ireland and had their own claim to voice. This battle is told in the tale of the Second Battle of Moytura.

The Second Battle of Moytura

In the First Battle of Moytura the king of the Fir Bolg was slain and Nuada, the king of the Tuatha De, was severely injured when his arm was cut off at the shoulder. Diancecht the physician fashioned him an arm of silver to replace the one he lost. Unfortunately the law of the Tuatha De states that a king must be whole and unblemished, so Nuada lost his throne to a man named Eochaid Bres or Eochaid the Beautiful. Eochaid’s mother was of the Tuatha De but his father was a Fomorian, their chief. Eochaid knew nothing of this and was brought up by the Tuatha De.

When he was made king a wedding was arranged between him and Tailltiu, the widow of the dead Fir Bolg king. At the same time a marriage between Cian, son of Diancecht the physician, and Ethne, daughter of the great Fomorian warrior Balor.

Bres was made king on the condition that if the people were not happy with his rule he would abdicate.

It was not long before he began to favour the Fomorians and began to oppress the Tuatha De. Eventually the Tuatha De rebelled and reminded Bres of the condition. He agreed but begged to remain for seven years.

His request was granted and he used this time to gather the forces of the Fomorians to destroy the Tuatha De. It was during this time that he learnt who his father was, when his mother took him to the Fomorians and their chief acknowledged him.

It was also during this time that Nuada was healed. The skin around the false arm began to fester and so Nuada sent for Miach, another son of Diancecht, who was known to have great powers of healing. Miach examined Nuada and called for the flesh arm to be found. It was found and was put in place of the silver arm. Miach chanted, “Let this be joined sinew to sinew and nerve to nerve so that there is movement and feeling in every joint.” Nuada was healed in three days.

Diancecht became so jealous of Miach’s healing powers that he hit his son in the head with his sword. Miach was able to heal himself. Diancecht struck him again cut him to the bone and again Miach healed himself. Again Diancecht struck, this time to the brain and again he struck, destroying Miach brains too badly that even his powers were defeated. This was not the end for Miach’s powers though. When he was buried 365 herbs grew from his grave. His sister Airmid gathered them and sorted them, but again Diancecht’s jealousy got the better of him and he mixed them up. If it had not been for Diancecht’s jealousy the cure for every illness would be known.

As Nuada was healed, he was reinstated as king of the Tuatha De Danann. To celebrate this he held a feast at Tara. During the feast the doorkeeper saw a company approach led by a fair, young warrior in regal robes.

“Who are you and what is your purpose here?” asked the doorkeeper.

“Lugh Long Arm is here to see the king. Son of Cian, son of Diancecht and of Ethne, daughter of Balor. Tell the king that I am here to see him and that I can help him.”

“What do you practise? No one can enter Tara without qualifications.”

“Questions me doorkeeper, I am a carpenter,” Luch Long Arm said.

“We have no need of a carpenter, Luchta is our carpenter,” the doorkeeper replied.

“Questions me doorkeeper, I am a smith.”

“We have a smith, we have no need of another.”

“I am a champion warrior,” Luch said.

“Ogma is our champion and we have more warriors of our own.”

“I am skilled in playing the harp.”

“We have a harpist,” the doorkeeper replied.

“I am a strategist.”

“We have them.”

“I am a historian and a poet.”

“We have one.”

“I am skilled in the arts of sorcery.”

“We have the most powerful druids in all the land.”

“I am a physician,” Lugh said.

“Daincecht is our physician,” the doorkeeper replied.

“I am a cupbearer.”

“We have plenty.”

“I am a metalworker.”

“Credne is our metalworker,” the doorkeeper replied.

“Then go and ask the king if he has anyone who has all these skills and learning. If he has I will not enter.”

In response to this message from his doorkeeper, Nuada sent his best chess-player to test Lugh’s mental skills. Lugh defeated him easily. The king invited him into Tara and gave him the seat reserved for the wisest of them all.

Ogma was eager to prove his strength to the newcomer. He picked up on the flagstones of the palace. He heaved it through a wall and threw it right outside the fort. In response to this challenge Lugh picked up the stone and threw it back inside and in an instant he repaired the damage to the wall.

Nuada knew that Lugh was a true champion and he made him responsible for Ireland’s defence against the Formorians.

A great conference took place as he Tuatha De Danann tried to decide what to do about the Fomorians. Under Lugh’s leadership everyone agreed to use what skill they had to help in the fight against the Fomorians. Lugh, the Dagda and Ogma agreed to go to the three warrior goddesses and to learn from them how the battle should be planned. The Dagda met the Morrigan at Samain and he persuaded her to reveal the Fomorians’ plans and to fight on the side of the Tuatha De.

It took the full seven years to prepare for the battle and by the end the Tuatha De were still not quite ready so the Dagda went to the Fomorians to seek a truce to gain more time.

Knowing that Dagda loved porridge, the Fomorians made a large amount and poured it into a huge cauldron sized pit. They threatened the Dagda with death if he did not finish every last scarp because they did not want to be accused of not being hospitable. They spoke with such sincerity that the Dagda seized his ladle, which was big enough for a man and a woman to lie in, and finished every scrap of porridge even using his fingers to scrape the bottom of the pit. He as so full that he fell asleep and the Fomorians laughed at him. When he awoke and left he could hardly walk because his stomach was the size of a cauldron. He leaned on his weapon, a great-wheeled club that as he walked left a track so deep and enduring that it served as a boundary mark for the province.

The Fomorians mocked him but the Dagda had done what he had set out to do and the Tuatha De had the time they needed to complete their preparations.

The Tuatha De decided that Lugh was to valuable to be lost in the battle so when the army assembled he was surrounded by nine of his warriors. He was in charge of strategy but he would not fight in the battle.

On the eve of Samain the to armies met with champions facing each other in single combat. Mostly the Tuatha De was victorious but occasionally a Fomorian was victorious. The Fomorians noticed that unlike their injured the Tuatha De Danann’s injured were well and ready to fight the following day and that their weapons were mended. They sent a spy, Ruadan, to find out the Tuatha De’s secret.

He went into the Tuatha De’s camp and found Goibniu, the smith; Luchta, the carpenter and Credne the metalworker working as a powerful team to mend the weapons. He saw how Diancecht and his sons cast spells over a well and when the wounded and the dead where thrown into its waters they were healed and restored to life. Ruadan grew angry and he attacked Goibniu with his spear. Goibniu removed the spear and sent it into Ruadan and sent him to die among his own people.

His mission was not a complete failure though, because with his dying breath he told the Fomorians about the well and that night they went and filled it with stones.

Now the two armies battled each other and as they confronted one another the Fomorians saw a shining figure at the front of the Tuatha De. Lugh had escaped his guards and was now inciting the Tuatha De to victory.

The battle was fast a furious with people falling on both sides. Then Balor, the king of the Fomorians, killed Nuada Silver Arm and so Lugh fought to the front of the line to confront his grandfather.

Balor was also known as Balor Evil Eye because once, when his father’s druids had been brewing an evil potion, some of the fumes from the brew had wafted into his eye and the poison from the charm had entered it. One glance from the now poisonous eye could destroy armies.

As Lugh confronted his grandfather he shouted a challenge so Balor ordered his eye to be opened so that he could see him. Four men holding wooden pegs were used to lift the heavy lid covering the evil eye.

Before the eye was half open Lugh used his slingshot to cast a stone at the eye. It passed through the eye and carried it to the back of his head where it killed 27 Fomorians standing there.

With Balor dead, the Tuatha De fought with renewed vigour and with the help of the warrior goddesses they drove the Fomorians into the sea and Bres fled with them.

When the battle was over, there were more dead than could be counted. It is said that the standing stones on the plain of Carrowmore, near Sligo, mark the graves of those who died in the Second Battle of Moytura.

With the land free of the Fomorians and the Tuatha De restored to their former positions the Morrigan, war goddess of Ireland, climbed to the mountain tops to chant victory to all those in the land.

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THE CONQUEST BY NEMED

Agustus 1, 2011 at 11:07 am (Uncategorized) (, )

The Conquest of Nemed

This takes place at the beginning, before Ireland was Ireland, when it was inhabited only by a tribe known as the Fomorians. Their name is translated from Celtic to mean ‘those who live under the sea’.

Nemed and his people left Greece to make the westward journey, looking for a new home. They left in thirty-four oared boats with thirty people in each. Thirty years before Nemed and his followers left for Ireland a plague swept through the land leaving much of Ireland desolate.

The journey was going well with calm seas and favourable winds, until a golden tower was sighted. It had smooth yellow walls that glistened in the seas mist and it was so tall that its top was lost in the clouds.

The fleet rowed towards it, hoping to find treasure, but the sea around it surged with treacherous currents that capsized some of the fleet and drove the rest into the jagged rocks. Only Nemed’s boat survived, but most of those travelling with him drowned.

The survivors sailed away from there and came to the shores of Ireland. Here they settled.

But their troubles were not over. Twelve days after they landed Macha, Nemed’s wife, was the first to die of the plague that was still ravaging Ireland.

The Fomorians also wanted to settle Ireland but Nemed and his men were to strong and made them work as slaves. They built two great forts and carved out twelve fields from the forested land. They were not the only things changing the look of the landscape. Natural causes were also making changes. Four mighty cloudbursts created four great lakes (that can still be seen today).

While Nemed lived the Fomorians were under his control. In three battles he lost many men but he subdued them nonetheless. That was until he too died of the plague that still lurked in dark corners of Ireland.

Now the Fomorians saw their chance to turn the tables on the Children of Nemed. Without Nemed his children were defeated.

The Fomorians were cruel and harsh. Every year at the festival of Samain (Today’s Halloween – 1 November) the Children of Nemed were forced to give up two-thirds of their corn, two-thirds of their mil produce and two-thirds of their new born infants.

The Children of Nemed sent messengers to Greece, asking for assistance. Many people set sail from Greece, including druids and druidesses and many vicious animals.

The fleet laid siege to the king of the Fomorians, Conann, in his glass tower, until he was forced to battle the army.

First the druids and druidesses of each army battled, but they were evenly matched, countering every spell the others cast. Then the warriors battled and many men were lost but eventually the Children of Nemed were victorious.

However Conann was still safe in his tower, so the Children of Nemed let loose the vicious animals – wolves and poisonous pigs – and most people fled, but Conann was still safe.

Then, Fergus, con of Nemed, challenged Conann to single combat and so Conann was killed.

But this was not the end as more Fomorians arrived and as they left their ships the Children of Nemed were waiting for them and fierce fights broke out, so filled with battle fury was everyone that no one noticed a tidal wave headed towards them. It was higher than the tower itself and moving faster than any hawk and it broke over the people fighting there on the beach killing all but thirty Children of Nemed and a boatload of the Fomorians.

After this the Children of Nemed couldn’t settle down, being in constant fear for their lives. Eventually they scattered, some returning to Greece and others to Britain. Except for the Formorians, Ireland was empty again for another 200 years.

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TUATHA DE’ DANANN

Juli 30, 2011 at 3:53 am (Uncategorized) ()

In Irish-Celtic mythology, the Tuatha Dé Danann (“People of the goddess Danu”) are the Irish race of gods, founded by the goddess Danu. These gods, who originally lived on ‘the islands in the west’, had perfected the use of magic. They traveled on a big cloud to the land that later would be called Ireland and settled there.
Shortly after their arrival they defeated the Firbolg at the first battle of Mag Tuireadh. In the second battle of Mag Tuireadh they fought and conquered the Fomorians, a race of giants who were the primordial inhabitants of Ireland. The Tuatha Dé dealt more subtly with the Fomorians than with the Firbolg, and gave them the province of Connacht. There was also some marrying between the two races.
The Tuatha Dé themselves were later driven to the underworld by the Milesians, the people of the fabulous spanish king Milesius. There they still live as invisible beings and are known as the Aes sidhe. In a just battle, they will fight beside mortals. When they fight, they go armed with lances of blue flame and shields of pure white.
Important members are of the Tuatha Dé are: Dagda, Brigid, Nuada, Lugh, Dian Cecht, Ogma, and Lir. The goddess Danu can also be identified with the Welsh goddess Don.
The Epic of the Tuatha Dé Danann is the first Cycle of Irish storytelling.

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BOANN

Juli 30, 2011 at 3:50 am (Uncategorized) ()

“She of the white cattle”. Irish goddess goddess of bounty and fertility, whose totem is the sacred white cow. Also goddess of the River Boyne. She is the wife of the water god Nechtan or of Elcmar, and consort of the Dagda, by whom she was the mother of the god Aengus. To hide their union from Nechtan, Boann and the Dagda caused the sun to stand still for nine months, so that Aengus was conceived and born on the same day.

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BLODEUWEDD

Juli 30, 2011 at 3:50 am (Uncategorized) ()

Blodeuwedd was created out of flowers by Gwydion to wed Llew Llaw Gyffes. She betrayed Llew, either because she had no soul, being non-human, or because she resented being his chattel, or because the triplet of one woman and two men must play itself out in Welsh myth, and Llew Llaw Gyffes must die. At any rate, she fell in love with Goronwy and, wishing to be rid of Llew, she tricked out of him the clearly supernatural and ritual manner in which only he could be killed: neither by day nor night, indoors nor out of doors, riding nor walking, clothed nor naked, nor by any weapon lawfully made. She asked him to explain this, and he did: he could be killed only if it were twilight, wrapped in a fish net, with one foot on a cauldron and the other on a goat, and if the weapon had been forged during sacred hours when such work was forbidden. Blodeuwedd convinced him to demonstrate how impossible such a position was to achieve by chance, and when he was in it, het lover Goronwy leapt out and struck. Llew was transformed into an eagle and eventually restored to human form, after which he killed Goronwy. Blodeuwedd was transformed into an owl, to haunt the night in loneliness and sorrow, shunned by all other birds.

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BILE

Juli 30, 2011 at 3:49 am (Uncategorized) ()

The Celtic god of light and healing, “Bel” means “shining one,” or in Irish Gaelic, the name “bile” translates to “sacred tree.” It is thought that the waters of Danu, the Irish All-Mother goddess, fed the oak and produced their son, The Dagda. As the Welsh Beli, he is the father of Arianrhod by Don.
Patron of sheep and cattle, Bel’s festival is Beltane, one of two main Celtic fire festivals. Beltane celebrates the return of life and fertility to the world — marking the beginning of Summer and the growing season. Taking place on April 30, Beltane also is sometimes referred to as “Cetsamhain” which means “opposite Samhain.” The word “Beltaine” literally means “bright” or “brilliant fire,” and refers to the bonfire lit by a presiding Druid in honor of Bile.
“Some believe this deity is the equivalent of Belatucadros, the consort of Belisama, another patroness of light, fire, the forge and crafts. Belatucadros, whose name means “fair shining one” or possibly “the fair slayer,” is the god of destruction and war and transports the dead to Danu’s “divine waters.” Celtic deities often reign over seemingly contradictory themes. In the case of Belatucadros, death was simply a pathway to rebirth in the Otherworld, thus linking the two themes together. However, according to Ross’s Pagan Celtic Britain, historically the worship of Belatucadros among the Celts was confined only the northwestern region of Britain and has never been associated with the festival of Beltane, healing or with a consort (pg. 235).
It has been suggested that the mythological king, Beli Mawr, in the story of Lludd and Llefelys in The Mabinogion, is a folk memory of this god. In Irish mythology, the great undertakings of the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Milesians — the original supernatural inhabitants of Eiru and their human conquerors, respectively — began at Beltane. The Milesians were led by Amairgen, son of Mil, in folklore reputed to be the first Druid.

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BELENUS

Juli 30, 2011 at 3:47 am (Uncategorized) ()

Belenus is the Gaulish/Celtic god of light, and referred to as ‘The Shining One’. His cult spread from northern Italy to southern Gaul and Britain. Belenus is in charge of the welfare of sheep and cattle. His wife is the goddess Belisama. They can be compared with the continental Apollo and Minerva, but Belenus can also be identified with the Irish god Bile. His festival is Beltine (“Fire of Bel”), celebrated on May 1. On this day, purifying fires were lit and cattle driven between them before being allowed out onto the open pastures.
Several Latin writers refer to Belenus in connection with Aquitaine, Austria and northern Italy.

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BANBA

Juli 30, 2011 at 3:46 am (Uncategorized) ()

The goddess who represents the spirit of Ireland, and who is the wife of king MacCuill. She was thought to be the first settler in Ireland. She is part of a trinity of goddesses, the daughters of Fiachna, together with Fodla and Eriu. Amergin, son of Miled, promised her the honor of naming the island after her. Banba is also a poetic name for Ireland.
Initially, she could have been a goddess of war as well as a fertility goddess.

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BALOR

Juli 30, 2011 at 3:46 am (Uncategorized) ()

In the Celtic-Irish mythology, Balor is the god of death and the king of the Fomorians, a race of giants. He was the son of Buarainech and the husband of Cethlenn. Balor had only one eye, which he kept closed because anything he looked at would die instantly.
According to some prophesies, Balor would be killed by his own grandson. He locked his daughter Ethlinn in a crystal tower, to prevent her from getting pregnant. With the help of the druidess Birog, Cian of the Tuatha Dé Danann, managed to enter the tower and slept with Ethlinn. She gave birth to a son, but when Balor learned of his existence he threw him in the ocean. Birog saved the boy and gave him to the sea god Manannan mac Lir, where he was raised. The boy, named Lugh Lamhfada (Lugh of the Long Arm), became a member of the Tuatha Dé Danann and led them in the second battle at Mag Tuireadh.
In this second, and final battle, Balor killed King Nuada of the Tuatha Dé Danann with a glance from his eye. But when he opened his eye to kill his grandson Lugh, the latter managed to rip out Balor’s eye with a sling and Balor fell dead to the ground.

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BADB

Juli 30, 2011 at 3:45 am (Uncategorized) ()

Badb is the Irish (Celtic) goddess of war. She often assumes the form of a raven or carrion-crow (her favorite disguise) and is then referred to as Badb Catha, meaning “battle raven”. Not only did she take part in battles themselves, she also influenced their outcome by causing confusion among the warriors with her magic. The battle-field is often called ‘land of Badb’.
She formed part of a triad of war-goddesses with Macha (Nemain) and the Morrigan.

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